a, Physical Concepts

Atom: the smallest part of the chemical element that is not further divisible by chemical processes (MTA -Hungarian Science Academy’s Explanatory Dictionary). An atom is the smallest quantity in chemistry that still preserves the chemical characteristics of the element. Atoms therefore are the fundamental components of molecules and the material.

Electron: the negatively charged elementary particle of the atom that is orbiting the nucleus, the elementary particle of electricity (MTA Explanatory Dictionary). The electrons together with the nucleus form chemical particles, and are responsible for the chemical bonds.

Ions: ion is an atom, or a molecule (atom group), that has an electric charge. The negative charged ion, in other words anion is such an atom or a molecule that has a surplus of one or more electrons; cation on the other hand is a positive charged ion that has a deficiency of one or more electrons the same way as in the original particle. The process along which ions are created is called ionization.

Frequency: The number of signal (energy) periods per one second, signal density. Hungarian Science Academy (MTA)

Periods: regularly recurring sections of a certain phenomenon. (MTA Explanatory Dictionary).

Frequency of an electronic wave: the number of waveforms of electrical signals repeated per one second.

Magnetism: the characteristic of certain materials, atoms, molecules where electrons moving in the same direction generate a magnetic field between the materials.

Electricity: A physical process in which electric charges, their movements and effects can be found.

Electric charge: it is the characteristic of certain subatomic particles (namely the electron’s and the proton’s) that gets in touch with the electromagnetic field and attractive and repulsive forces occur between them. It is the fundamental feature left over in a few basic elements, which determines the extent to which it participates in the electromagnetic interaction, one of the fundamental interactions. The electrically charged material creates an electromagnetic field and the external electromagnetic field influences its movements.

Electric field: it operates between two electric charges similar to gravity between two objects. An essential difference between the two things is that gravity affects all objects, while the electric field comes into being only among electrically charged objects, on the other hand the force of the electric charges can also be repulsive. The force magnitude is inversely proportional to the square of the distance between the two charges, and is directly proportional to the size of the multiplied charges.

Electricity: it is the result of the flow of electrically charged particles. The particles can be positively or negatively charged. Examples for electricity can be the flow of electrons in metals (or in other conductive materials), or the power created in the electrolytes when charged ions flow in the liquid. The particles themselves are relatively slow physically, however, the electric field that creates the movement is practically moving at light speed.

Direct current (DC): when charged particles move only in a given direction.

Electromagnetic interaction: the physics of the electromagnetic field. The electromagnetic field is the field which fills up the entire space created by the electric and magnetic fields. While the electric field is the result of the charge causing static electricity (that creates electricity in an electric conductor), the magnetic field comes from the movements of the electric charge (like the current in a conductor) and is manifested in the magnetic force similar to the permanent magnets. The change of the magnetic field creates an electric field called electromagnetic induction.

Electromagnetic power: It is the effect of the electric field on the particles of an electric charge. This type of force is one of the four fundamental forces of nature. The other three are the following: 1) the strong nuclear force converging the nucleus, 2) the weak nuclear force responsible for certain types of radioactive decay 3) the gravitational force. All interactions (forces) between physical objects are the ultimate consequences of these 4 fundamental forces, however, the electromagnetic force is responsible for basically all the phenomena in our everyday lives, except for gravitation. All forces can be traced back to the electromagnetic force that affects the electrically charged protons and electrons of the atom., All chemical processes occur through the forces of the interactions of the electron’s circulation.

Electromagnetic radiation: oscillating electric and magnetic field exceeding perpendicularly to each other that spreads in the space in the shape of a wave delivering energy and impulses with light speed. Its quantum are the photons. The electromagnetic radiation between the wavelength of 380 NM and 780 NM is visible to the human eye that’s why we call it visible light. All the electromagnetic radiation can be arranged according to frequency (wavelength, energy), that is when we can get the electromagnetic spectrum. The physics of the electromagnetic radiation is described by electrodynamics.

Band-path filter: such an electric circuit, which operates in the pre-determined frequency range of electricity. Band-path filter helps to recognise impulses, potentials in choosed signal density.

The ranges of the applied band-path filters via EMOST: 1-10Hz, 10-100Hz, 100-1kHz, 1kHz-10kHz, 10kHz-100kHz, 100kHz-1MHz, as 1-1.000.000 signal/sec.

Wave: state changes of a system that is periodic in time and/or space, IE has regular intervals. Apart from the electromagnetic wave, waves spread in some kind of a medium. They deliver energy without the constant motion of the material of the medium to the direction of propagation, thus the wave delivers energy resulting from motion coming from a stabile point, but no mass.

Interference: a physical phenomenon that occurs if two coherent waves meet with different sources, IE waves whose phase difference is constant. As a result points come into being in space in which waves greatly strengthen each other, and also points in which waves greatly weaken each other (depending on what kind of phase difference the two waves arrive with at the individual points.

symbols-definitions (PDF)

b, Biological definitions

Homeostasis: Physiological concept, the ability to adapt to the external and internal changing conditions of the living organisms by which they can ensure their relative biological stability. Under the dynamic permanence and stability of the internal conditions we mean the proper nutrition-supply, the necessary quantity and quality of the respiratory gases, thermoregulation, the proper quantity and quality of the body fluids, volume, ion composition, pH, temperature, osmotic pressure, and the presence of all the protection modes, and the proper operation of all these. These components are ensured by the self-sustaining living organisms with the help of the hormonal and nervous system, collectively known as self-regulating operations.

Potentiation: The process of assisting the establishment of homeostasis.

Receptor: the organism or cells of the nervous system developed to collect stimuli. (MTA Explanatory Dictionary).

Free-radicals: Chemically very reactive atoms and molecules, which serve dominant signal roles in the physiological and pathological condition of the body. Free radicals are atoms or molecules that contain an unpaired electron on their external shells (having magnetic momentum), tend to form pairs and absorb more electrons from other molecules.

Signal process: It is a reflexive process based on stimulus perception and stimulus creation, under which we mean the organization and the operation of the subsystems, and the organization of the sub-systems with each other. This retrospective process is completed in atomic, molecular, cellular, electric- electromagnetic and electro-chemical ways in which the stimulus detection and the stimulus triggering have also a stimulus transmitting role.

Self regulation: it is a continuous regulation based on the control of the operations and the signal processes in order to have an overall homeostasis of the organization.